We made that style of dress in a Burnley & Trowbridge workshop: http://www.burnleyandtrowbridge.com/westcoastworkshops.aspx
I don't know if there are any other period terms, but they (B&T / Janea Whitacre) called it a "quartered-back gown with a drawstring front". You could also make a "folded front" (aka what we call a "zone") instead; the construction is the same except for the very front.
The "quartered back" means that when you look at the back, it appears to be divided up in quarters. The skirt is attached separately (in other words, it's not a saque or an en fourreau). But you probably already knew that. ;)